The final version of this manuscript is open access. When citing, please list and cite the published version available online at https://doi.org/10.1177/17470218211040724

Zhu, M. J., & Risko, E. F. (2022). To organise or not to organise? Understanding search strategy preferences using Lego building blocks. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology75(5), 869–891. [PDF].

The data and R scripts for these experiments have been made available on the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/n7s23/files/).

The final version of this manuscript is available online at https://doi.org /10.1037/xhp0001026

Ashburner, M., & Risko, E. F. (2022). On the influence of evaluation context on judgments of effort. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 48(8), 790. [PDF].

This study was preregistered; the preregistrations, data, analysis scripts; and registration summary are available on the Open Science Framework at https://osf.io/s478n/. 

The final version of this manuscript is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2021.1990347

Pereira, A. E., Kelly, M. O., Lu, X., & Risko, E. F. (2022). On our susceptibility to external memory store manipulation: examining the influence of perceived reliability and expected access to an external store. Memory, 30(4), 412-428. [PDF].

The preregistrations for these experiments can be found on the Open Science Framework (Experiment 1: https://osf.io/cm9fq; Experiment 2: https://osf.io/3v7j2; and Experiment 3: https://osf.io/5uayq/).

Data and materials are available on the Open Science Framework for Experiment 1 (https://osf.io/xzw4t/), Experiment 2 (https://osf.io/xzw4t/), and Experiment 3 (https://osf.io/5uayq/).

The final version of this manuscript is available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2021.104299

Kelly, M. O., Ensor, T. M., Lu, X., MacLeod, C. M., & Risko, E. F. (2022). Reducing retrieval time modulates the production effect: Empirical evidence and computational accounts. Journal of Memory and Language, 123, 104299. [PDF].

Experiment 1 was preregistered at osf.io/kwzj3/. Experiment 2 was preregistered at osf.io/xt84h/. Experiment 3 was preregistered at osf.io/k8nqt/. Data and analyses code for Experiment 1-3 are available at osf.io/un5ca/.

The final version of this manuscript is available online at https://doi.org /10.3758/s13423-022-02064-6

Park, J. S., Kelly, M. O., Hargis, M. B., & Risko, E. F. (2022). The effect of external store reliance on actual and predicted value-directed remembering. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1-10.[PDF].

The data and materials for all experiments are available on the Open Science Frameworkat osf.io/2wke5/ and all experiments were pre-registered (E1a: osf.io/92a4s, E1b: osf.io/vcwu6E2: osf.io/3aemx).

The final version of this manuscript is available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2022.105228

Kelly, M. O., & Risko, E. F. (2022). Study effort and the memory cost of external store availability. Cognition, 228, 105228. [PDF].

Experiments 1a and 1b were preregistered on the Open Science Framework at osf.io/smk8n and osf.io/84cgk respectively. Data and analyses codes for both experiments are available at osf.io/8s75w/.

The final version of this manuscript is available online at https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-021-01237-3

Kelly, M. O., & Risko, E. F. (2022). Revisiting the influence of offloading memory on free recall. Memory & Cognition, 50(4), 710-721. [PDF].


The preregistration for this investigation is available on the Open Science Framework at osf.io/59g3y and the data and materials are available at osf.io/e5wrh.

The final version of this manuscript is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2021.1989465

Lu, X., Kelly, M. O., & Risko, E. F. (2022). The gist of it: offloading memory does not reduce the benefit of list categorisation. Memory, 30(4), 396-411. [PDF].

The preregistration for these experiments can be found on the Open Science Framework (Experiment 1a: https://osf.io/rhgfb; Experiment 1b: https://osf.io/u52gp; Experiment 1c: https://osf.io/udfpw; Experiment 2a: https://osf.io/p27d8; Experiment 2b: https://osf.io/nsw8r; Experiment 3: https://osf.io/qz4ad). Data and analysis code are available at https://osf.io/nwpx3/files (1a); https://osf.io/5c6qt/files (1b); http://osf.io/hdrz7/files (1c); https://osf.io/65znp/files (2a); https://osf.io/qjmwn/files (2b); http://osf.io/3g7tq/files (3).

The final version of this manuscript is available online at https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3827

Zhu, M. J., & Risko, E. F. (2021). That's my spot! Examining spatial habit formation in a naturalistic setting. Applied Cognitive Psychology35(4), 1090-1098. [PDF].

This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 

Ashburner, M., & Risko, E. F. (2021). Judgments of effort as a function of post-trial versus post-task elicitation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74(6), 991-1006. [PDF].

OSF Link: https://osf.io/tgx85/


Preregistrations: https://osf.io/zn4mr

This is an original manuscript / preprint of an article published by Wiley in The British Journal of Social Psychology, available online at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjso.12447
When citing, please list and cite the published version.

Littrell, S., Risko, E. F., & Fugelsang, J. A. (2021). "You can’t bullshit a bullshitter" (or can you?): Bullshitting frequency predicts receptivity to various types of misleading information. British Journal of Social Psychology. 60(4), 1484-1505. [PDF]

OSF Link: https://osf.io/chpvm/

This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in the Journal of Experimental Education. The Version of Record of this manuscript has been published and is available here: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00220973.2021.1873087

Bianchi, L. J. & Risko, E. F. (2021). The role of graphics in video lectures, The Journal of Experimental Education, 90(1), 56-76. [PDF].

OSF Link: https://osf.io/3q8wa/

This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Cognition. The final authenticated version is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104428

Lu, X., Kelly, M. O, & Risko, E. F. (2020). Offloading information to an external store increases false recall. Cognition, 205, 104428. [PDF].


OSF Links: https://osf.io/bqwyc/ and https://osf.io/rn5wq/ and https://osf.io/tserw/


Preregistrations: https://osf.io/pcdtg and https://osf.io/gdjc2 and https://osf.io/x56hg

This is an original manuscript / preprint of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Thinking and Reasoning on July 5, 2019, available online: https://doi.org/10.1080/13546783.2019.1633404

Littrell, S., Fugelsang, J. A., & Risko, E. F. (2020). Overconfidently underthinking: Narcissism negatively predicts cognitive reflection. Thinking & Reasoning, 26(3), 352 - 380. [PDF]

OSF Link: https://osf.io/s42z5/

The final version of this manuscript is open access. When citing, please list and cite the published version.

Bianchi, L. J., Kingstone, A. & Risko, E. F. (2020). The role of cognitive load in modulating social looking: A mobile eye tracking study. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 5, 44. [PDF].

Link to article on Journal's website: https://cognitiveresearchjournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s41235-020-00242-5

OSF Link: https://osf.io/c2hd8/ 

This is an original manuscript / preprint of an article published by Elsevier in Personality and Individual Differences on November 5, 2019, available online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109678

Littrell, S., Risko, E. F., & Fugelsang, J. A. (2020). Not so fast: Individual differences in impulsiveness are only a modest predictor of cognitive reflection. Personality and Individual Differences, 154, 109678. [PDF]

OSF Link: https://osf.io/2v4ym/

Preregistrations: https://osf.io/m2e4t

This is an original manuscript / preprint of an article published by Wiley in The British Journal of Social Psychology available online at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjso.12379
When citing, please list and cite the published version.

Littrell, S., Risko, E. F., & Fugelsang, J. A. (2020). The Bullshitting Frequency Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties. British Journal of Social Psychology. 60(1), 248-270. [PDF].

OSF Link: https://osf.io/dh6vj/#!


This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. The final authenticated version is available online at: https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-019-01615-8

Kelly, M. O. & Risko, E. F. (2019). Offloading memory: Serial position effects. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 26(4). 1347-1353. [PDF].

OSF Link: https://osf.io/zjh25/

Preregistrations: https://osf.io/qwcxh, https://osf.io/2z6gt

Click here to access an audio recording of this manuscript.

This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Cognition. The final authenticated version is available online at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010027719301076?via%3Dihub

Risko, E. F., Kelly, M. O., Gaspar, C., & Patel, P. (2019). Offloading memory leaves us vulnerable to memory manipulation. Cognition. 191. 103954. [PDF].

OSF Link: https://osf.io/3ce6u/

Preregistrations: https://osf.io/v8bzr, https://osf.io/pu25h

This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article accepted in the Journal of Applied
Research in Memory and Cognition. Available online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2019.10.001

Kelly, M. O., & Risko, E. F. (2019). The isolation effect when offloading memory. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 8(4), 471- 480. [PDF]

OSF Link: https://osf.io/e5wrh/

Preregistrations: https://osf.io/dcwmu, https://osf.io/5r3ap